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For example, the Royal Society depended on contributions from its members, which excluded a wide range of artisans and mathematicians on account of the expense.

A dialogue of formal communication also developed between societies and society in general through the publication of scientific journals.

Periodicals offered society members the opportunity to publish, and for their ideas to be consumed by other scientific societies and the literate public.

Scientific journals, readily accessible to members of learned societies, became the most important form of publication for scientists during the Enlightenment.

Periodicals Academies and societies served to disseminate Enlightenment science by publishing the scientific works of their members, as well as their proceedings.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, published by the Royal Society of London, was the only scientific periodical being published on a regular, quarterly basis.

The Paris Academy of Sciences, formed in , began publishing in volumes of memoirs rather than a quarterly journal, with periods between volumes sometimes lasting years.

Smaller periodicals, such as Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, were only published when enough content was available to complete a volume.

At one point the period extended to seven years. The limitations of such academic journals left considerable space for the rise of independent periodicals.

Independent periodicals were published throughout the Enlightenment and excited scientific interest in the general public.

First, they increased in number and size. There was also a move away from publishing in Latin in favour of publishing in the vernacular. Experimental descriptions became more detailed and began to be accompanied by reviews.

The journal allowed new scientific developments to be published relatively quickly compared to annuals and quarterlies. A third important change was the specialization seen in the new development of disciplinary journals.

Encyclopedias and dictionaries Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, and would be nothing new to Enlightenment readers, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries.

Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology. Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines.

Revolution — Published in , the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation.

The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy, and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving, brewing, and dyeing.

In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education.

Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon, and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory. For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine, while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively.

However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries.

It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries.

A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail. As a Reasoned Dictionary.

Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge. Popularization of science One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization.

An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning.

The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education.

British coffeehouses An early example of science emanating from the official institutions into the public realm was the British coffeehouse.

With the establishment of coffeehouses, a new public forum for political, philosophical and scientific discourse was created.

In the midth century, coffeehouses cropped up around Oxford, where the academic community began to capitalize on the unregulated conversation that the coffeehouse allowed.

Education was a central theme and some patrons began offering lessons and lectures to others. As coffeehouses developed in London, customers heard lectures on scientific subjects, such as astronomy and mathematics, for an exceedingly low price.

Public lectures Public lecture courses offered some scientists who were unaffiliated with official organizations a forum to transmit scientific knowledge, at times even their own ideas, and the opportunity to carve out a reputation and, in some instances, a living.

The public, on the other hand, gained both knowledge and entertainment from demonstration lectures. Class sizes ranged from one hundred to four or five hundred attendees.

Courses were offered at virtually any time of day; the latest occurred at or at night. One of the most popular start times was pm, allowing the working population to participate and signifying the attendance of the nonelite.

Generally, individuals presenting the lectures did not adhere to any particular brand of physics, but rather demonstrated a combination of different theories.

In the demonstration, a young boy would be suspended from the ceiling, horizontal to the floor, with silk chords. An electrical machine would then be used to electrify the boy.

Essentially becoming a magnet, he would then attract a collection of items scattered about him by the lecturer. Popular science in print Increasing literacy rates in Europe during the course of the Enlightenment enabled science to enter popular culture through print.

More formal works included explanations of scientific theories for individuals lacking the educational background to comprehend the original scientific text.

The publication of Bernard de Fontenelle's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds marked the first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular, and with the entertainment of readers in mind.

The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works. A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pembarton.

Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class.

Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children entitled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions.

The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment.

Some poetry became infused with scientific metaphor and imagery, while other poems were written directly about scientific topics.

Sir Richard Blackmore committed the Newtonian system to verse in Creation, a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books Other antiscience writers, including William Blake, chastised scientists for attempting to use physics, mechanics and mathematics to simplify the complexities of the universe, particularly in relation to God.

The character of the evil scientist was invoked during this period in the romantic tradition. For example, the characterization of the scientist as a nefarious manipulator in the work of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann.

Women in science During the Enlightenment era, women were excluded from scientific societies, universities and learned professions.

Women were educated, if at all, through self-study, tutors, and by the teachings of more open-minded fathers.

In fact, restrictions were so severe in the 18th century that women, including midwives, were forbidden to use forceps. Over the course of the 18th century, male surgeons began to assume the role of midwives in gynaecology.

Some male satirists also ridiculed scientifically minded women, describing them as A portrait of Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky.

To be pleasing in his sight, to win his respect and love, to train him in childhood, to tend him in manhood, to counsel and console, to make his life pleasant and happy, these are the duties of woman for all time, and this is what she should be taught while she is young.

Despite these limitations, there was support for women in the sciences among some men, and many made valuable contributions to science during the 18th century.

Two notable women who managed to participate in formal institutions were Laura Bassi and the Russian Princess Yekaterina Dashkova.

Bassi was an Italian physicist who received a PhD from the University of Bologna and began teaching there in Dashkova became the director of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences of St.

Petersburg in Her personal relationship with Czarina Catherine the Great r. More commonly, women participated in the sciences through an association with a male relative or spouse.

Caroline Herschel began her astronomical career, although somewhat reluctantly at first, by assisting her brother William Herschel. Caroline Herschel is most Portrait of M.

On August 1, , Herschel discovered her first comet, much to the excitement of scientifically minded women. Eva Ekeblad became the first woman inducted in to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science Many other women became illustrators or translators of scientific texts.

Englishwoman Mary Delany developed a unique method of illustration. Her technique involved using hundreds of pieces of coloured-paper to recreate lifelike renditions of living plants.

Noblewomen sometimes cultivated their own botanical gardens, including Mary Somerset and Margaret Harley. Scientific translation sometimes required more than a grasp on multiple languages.

Astronomy Building on the body of work forwarded by Copernicus, Kepler and Newton, 18th-century astronomers refined telescopes, produced star catalogues, and worked towards explaining the motions of heavenly bodies and the consequences of universal gravitation.

When he compared the ancient positions of stars to their contemporary positions, he found that they had shifted. The discovery was proof of a heliocentric model of the universe, since it is the revolution of the earth around the sun that causes an apparent motion in the observed position of a star.

The discovery also led Bradley to a fairly close estimate to the speed of light. During the transit of Venus, the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov observed a ring of light around the planet.

Lomonosov attributed the ring to the refraction of sunlight, which he correctly hypothesized was caused by the atmosphere of Venus. Further evidence of Venus' atmosphere was gathered in observations by Johann Hieronymus Schröter in However, much astronomical work of the period becomes shadowed by one of the most dramatic scientific discoveries of the 18th-century.

On 13 March , amateur astronomer William William Herschel's 40 foot 12 m telescope. Herschel spotted a new planet with his powerful reflecting telescope.

Initially identified as a comet, the celestial body later came to be accepted as a planet. The name Uranus, as proposed by Johann Bode, came into widespread usage after Herschel's death.

Michell postulated that if the density of a stellar object became great enough, its attractive force would become so large that even light could not escape.

While differing somewhat from a black hole, the dark star can be understood as a predecessor to the black holes resulting from Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Chemistry The chemical revolution was a period in the 18th century marked by significant advancements in the theory and practice of chemistry. Despite the maturity of most of the sciences during the scientific revolution, by the midth century chemistry had yet to outline a systematic framework or theoretical doctrine.

Elements of alchemy still permeated the study of chemistry, and the belief that the natural world was composed of the classical elements of earth, water, air and fire remained prevalent.

The resulting product was termed calx, which was considered a 'dephlogisticated' substance in its 'true' form.

Science in the Age of Enlightenment Lavoisier subsequently discovered and named oxygen, described its role in animal respiration[89] and the calcination of metals exposed to air — In , Lavoisier found that water was a compound of oxygen and hydrogen.

For example, burned lead was of the genus oxide and species lead. The new chemistry was established in Glasgow and Edinburgh early in the s, but was slow to become established in Germany.

Notes [1] Burns , entry: 7, Margaret Jacob offers a more specific analysis of lecturers in Holland and England in The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution New York: Knopf, Butterfield, "Chapter 11" of The Origins of Modern Science: New York: Macmillan, for this traditional view.

References Burns, William E. Science in the Enlightenment. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Butterfield, H. The Origins of Modern Science: New York: Macmillan.

Butts, Freeman R. New York: McGraw-Hill. Conant, James Bryant, ed. The Overthrow of the Phlogiston Theory: The Chemical Revolution of Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cowen, Brian William. The Social Life of Coffee: The Emergence of the British Coffeehouse. New Haven: Yale University Press. Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot.

Richard N. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Darnton, Robert. Daston, Lorraine. The Academies and the Utility of Knowledge: The Discipline of the Disciplines.

Differences vol. Gillispie, Charles C. Science and Polity in France at the end of the Old Regime. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Headrick, Daniel R. When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hoskin, Michael, ed. The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Idhe, Aaron J.

The Development of Modern Chemistry. Jacob, Margaret C. The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Kors, Alan Charles, ed. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. Littmann, Mark. Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System.

New York: Courier Dover Publications. Lynn, Michael R. Popular science and public opinion in eighteenth-century France.

Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press; New York : Palgrave. Mason, Stephen F. A History of the Sciences. New York: Collier Books.

McClellan, James E. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. McClellan, James Edward and Harold Dorn Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction.

JHU Press. Melton, James van Horn. Olby, R. N Cantor, J. Christie, and M. Companion to the History of Modern Science.

London: Routledge. Parker, Barry. Cosmic Time Travel: A Scientific Odyssey. New York: Plenum Press. Perrin, C. Research Traditions, Lavoisier, and the Chemical Revolution.

Osiris, 2nd Series vol. Phillips, Patricia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Porter, Roy, ed. The Cambridge History of Science.

Schectman, Jonathan. Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions and Discoveries of the 18th Century. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Shearer, Barbara S. Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary. Silver, Brian L. The Ascent of Science. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sutton, Geoffrey. Science for a Polite Society: Gender, Culture, and the Demonstration of Enlightenment. Colorado: Westview Press.

Thomson, James. The seasons. To which is added, A poem sacred to the memory of Sir Isaac Newton, By James Thomson.

Berwick: printed for W. Turner, Herbert Hall. Astronomical Discovery. Berkeley: University of California Press. Whitehead, Barbara J.

New York: Garland. American Enlightenment The American Enlightenment is the intellectual thriving period in America in the mid-to-late 18th century, especially as it relates to American Revolution on the one hand and the European Enlightenment on the other.

Influenced by the scientific revolution of the 17th century and the humanist period during the Renaissance, the Enlightenment took scientific reasoning and applied it to human nature, society and religion.

Politically the age is distinguished by an emphasis upon liberty, democracy, republicanism and religious tolerance — culminating in the drafting of the United States Declaration of Independence and Constitution.

Attempts to reconcile science and religion resulted in a rejection of prophecy, miracle and revealed religion, often in preference for Deism.

Historians have considered how the ideas of John Locke and Republicanism merged together to form Republicanism in the United States.

The most important leaders of the American Enlightenment include Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Sources The Americans closely followed English and Scottish political ideas, as well as some French thinkers such as Montesquieu.

John Locke was especially influential. From the Country Party the Americans picked up republicanism, which became a major component of American political values.

Liberalism and Republicanism: Government of the People, by the People, for the People Since the s historians have debated the Enlightenment's role in the American Revolution.

Before the consensus was that liberalism, especially that of John Locke, was paramount and that republicanism had a distinctly secondary role.

Pocock who argued in The Machiavellian Moment that, at least in the early eighteenth-century, republican ideas were just as important as liberal ones.

Pocock's view is now widely accepted. University Professor Isaac Kramnick, on the other hand, argues that Americans have always been highly individualistic and therefore Lockean.

They especially followed the development of republican ideas in England. A neoclassical politics provided both the ethos of the elites and the rhetoric of the upwardly mobile, and accounts for the singular cultural and intellectual homogeneity of the Founding Fathers and their generation.

Ideas spread most rapidly when they have found adequate concrete expression. Up to this point, the conviction had prevailed in Europe that monarchy best served the interests of the nation.

Now the idea spread that the nation should govern itself. But only after a state had actually been formed on the basis of the theory of representation did the full significance of this idea become clear.

All later revolutionary movements have this same goal This was the complete reversal of a principle. Until then, a king who ruled by the grace of God had been the center around which everything turned.

Now the idea emerged that power should come from below These two principles are like two opposite poles, and it is the conflict between them that determines the course of the modern world.

In Europe the conflict between them had not yet taken on concrete form; with the French Revolution it did.

Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness Many historians[10] find the origins of the famous phrase derives from Locke's position that "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.

American Enlightenment The United States Declaration of Independence, which was primarily written by Jefferson, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, The text of the second section of the Declaration of Independence reads: We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

Deism Both the Moderate Enlightenment and a Radical or Revolutionary Enlightenment were reactions against the authoritarianism, irrationality and obscurantism of the established churches.

Philosophes such as Voltaire depicted organized Christianity as a tool of tyrants and oppressors and as being used to defend monarchism, it was seen as hostile to the development of reason and the progress of science and incapable of verification.

An alternative religion was Deism, the philosophical belief in a deity based on reason, rather than religious revelation or dogma. It was a popular perception among the philosophes, who adopted deistic attitudes to varying degrees.

Deism greatly influenced the thought of intellectuals and Founding Fathers, including John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, [and George Washington and, especially, Thomas Jefferson.

Paine was highly controversial; when Jefferson was attacked for his Deism in the Thomas Paine election, Republican politicians took pains to distance their candidate from him.

Religious Tolerance Enlightened Founding Fathers, especially Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington, fought for and eventually attained religious freedom for minority denominations.

According to the founding fathers, America should be a country where peoples of all faiths, including Catholics, could live in peace and mutual benefit.

James Madison summed up this ideal in saying, "Conscience is the most sacred of all property. References [1] Paul M. Spurlin, Montesquieu in America, [2] Jerome Huyler, Locke in America: The moral philosophy of the founding era [3] See for example, Vernon L.

Greene and J. Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution ch 9; Robert E. Shallhope, "Republicanism," ibid ch The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution [9] quoted in Becker , p.

Pole, The pursuit of equality in American history p. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved January 21, Ely, Main themes in the debate over property rights p.

The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson University of Virginia Press, ISBN [15] Eric Foner, Tom Paine and Revolutionary America p [16] Bryan-Paul Frost and Jeffrey Sikkenga, History of American political thought p.

The Age of Reason. Philip Sheldon Foner. New York: Citadel Press, Thomas Paine: Collected Writings. Eric Foner. Library of America, The Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine.

Philip S. Replica Books, Michael Foot and Isaac Kramnick. New York: Penguin Books, Library of America. Authoritative and scholarly edition containing Common Sense, the essays comprising the American Crisis series, Rights of Man, The Age of Reason, Agrarian Justice, and selected briefer writings, with authoritative texts and careful annotation.

The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine, 2 volumes. Citadel Press. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, —, 3 vols.

Owen, Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine. In Pursuit of Reason well-reviewed short biography of Jefferson. Cambridge University Press. The Radicalism of the American Revolution Vintage, ISBN According to deists, the creator does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the natural laws of the universe.

Deists typically reject supernatural events such as prophecy and miracles, tending instead to assert that a god or "the Supreme Architect" does not alter the universe by intervening in it.

This idea is also known as the Clockwork universe theory, in which a god designs and builds the universe, but steps aside to let it run on its own.

Two main forms of deism currently exist: classical deism and modern deism. The earliest known usage in print of the English term "deist" is ,[3] and "deism" is first found in a dictionary.

Deistic ideas also influenced several leaders of the American and French revolutions. Overview Deism is a theological position concerning the relationship between "the Creator" and the natural world.

Deistic viewpoints emerged during the scientific revolution of 17th century Europe and came to exert a powerful influence during the eighteenth century enlightenment.

Deism stood between the narrow dogmatism of the period and skepticism. Though deists rejected atheism,[7] they often were called "atheists" by more traditional theists.

In England, Deism included a range of people from anti-Christian to un-Christian theists. God is thus conceived to be wholly transcendent and never immanent.

For Deists, human beings can only know God via reason and the observation of nature but not by revelation or supernatural manifestations such as miracles — phenomena which Deists regard with caution if not skepticism.

See the section Features of deism, following. Deism can also refer to a personal set of beliefs having to do with the role of nature in spirituality.

Deism bears a relationship to naturalism. As such, Deism gives credit for the formation of life and the universe to a higher power that by design allows only natural processes to govern creation.

Prior to the 17th century the terms ["Deism" and "Deist"] were used interchangeably with the terms "theism" and "theist," respectively. Theologians and philosophers of the seventeenth century began to give a different signification to the words Both [theists and Deists] asserted belief in one supreme God, the Creator Viret, a Calvinist, regarded Deism as a new form of Italian heresy.

I have heard that there are of this band those who call themselves Deists, an entirely new word, which they want to oppose to Atheist.

For in that atheist signifies a person who is without God, they want to make it understood that they are not at all without God, since they certainly believe there is some sort of God, whom they even recognize as creator of heaven and earth, as do the Turks; but as for Jesus Christ, they only know that he is and hold nothing concerning him nor his doctrine.

Deism flourished in England between and , at which time Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation , also called "The Deist's Bible," gained much attention.

Later Deism spread to France, notably through the work of Voltaire, to Germany, and to America. Critical and constructive deism The concept of deism covers a wide variety of positions on a wide variety of religious issues.

Specific thoughts on aspects of the afterlife will vary. While there are those who maintain that God will punish or reward us according to our behavior on Earth, likewise there are those who assert that any punishment or reward that is due to us is given during our mortal stay on Earth.

Individual deists varied in the set of critical and constructive elements for which they argued. Some deists rejected the claim of Jesus' divinity but continued to hold him in high regard as a moral teacher see, for example, Thomas Jefferson's famous Jefferson Bible and Matthew Tindal's 'Christianity as Old as the Creation'.

Other, more radical deists rejected Christianity altogether and expressed hostility toward Christianity, which they regarded as pure superstition.

In return, Christian writers often charged radical deists with atheism. Peter Gay notes: All Deists were in fact both critical and constructive Deists.

All sought to destroy in order to build, and reasoned either from the absurdity of Christianity to the need for a new philosophy or from their desire for a new philosophy to the absurdity of Christianity.

Each Deist, to be sure, had his special competence. While one specialized in abusing priests, another specialized in rhapsodies to nature, and a third specialized in the skeptical reading of sacred documents.

Yet whatever strength the movement had— and it was at times formidable— it derived that strength from a peculiar combination of critical and constructive elements.

It was the same as the natural theology that was so prevalent in all English theology in the 17th and 18th centuries.

What set deists apart from their more orthodox contemporaries were their critical concerns. Defining the essence of English Deism is a formidable task.

Like priestcraft, atheism, and freethinking, Deism was one of the dirty words of the age. Yet some Deists claimed to be Christian, and as Leslie Stephen argued in retrospect, the Deists shared so many fundamental rational suppositions with their orthodox opponents But the term Deism is nevertheless a meaningful one Too many men of letters of the time agree about the essential nature of English Deism for modern scholars to ignore the simple fact that what sets the Deists apart from even their most latitudinarian Christian contemporaries is their desire to lay aside scriptural revelation as rationally incomprehensible, and thus useless, or even detrimental, to human society and to religion.

While there may possibly be exceptions, Graham Waring observed,[14] "A strange feature of the [Deist] controversy is the apparent acceptance of all parties of the conviction of the existence of God.

Paul Hazard has recently described the Deists of this time 'as rationalists with nostalgia for religion': men, that is, who had allowed the spirit of the age to separate them from orthodoxy, but who liked to believe that the slope they had started upon was not slippery enough to lead them to atheism.

Concepts of "reason" "Reason" was the ultimate court of appeal for deists. Tindal presents a Lockean definition of reason, self-evident truth, and the light of nature: By the rational faculties, then, we mean the natural ability a man has to apprehend, judge, and infer: The immediate objects of which faculties are not the things themselves, but the ideas the mind conceives of them Knowledge [is] And any two of these, when joined together so as to be affirmed or denied of each other, make what we call a proposition Knowledge accrues either immediately on the bare intuition of these two ideas or terms so joined, and is therefore styled intuitive knowledge or self-evident truth, or by the intervention of some other idea or ideas Deism If there were not some propositions which need not to be proved, it would be in vain for men to argue with one another [because there would be no basis for demonstrative reasoning] Those propositions which need no proof, we call self-evident; because by comparing the ideas signified by the terms of such propositions, we immediately discern their agreement, or disagreement: This is, as I said before, what we call intuitive knowledge By natural religion, I understand the belief of the existence of a God, and the sense and practice of those duties which result from the knowledge we, by our reason, have of him and his perfections; and of ourselves, and our own imperfections, and of the relationship we stand in to him, and to our fellow-creatures; so that the religion of nature takes in everything that is founded on the reason and nature of things.

I suppose you will allow that it is evident by the light of nature that there is a God, or in other words, a being absolutely perfect, and infinitely happy in himself, who is the source of all other beings Consequently, deist authors attempted to use reason as a critical tool for exposing and rejecting what they saw as nonsense.

Here are two typical examples. The first is from John Toland's Christianity Not Mysterious. There is nothing that men make a greater noise about than the "mysteries of the Christian religion.

Wherefore, we likewise maintain, according to the title of this discourse, that there is nothing in the Gospel contrary to reason, nor above it; and that no Christian doctrine can be properly called a mystery.

Now, as we are extremely subject to deception, we may without some infallible rule, often take a questionable proposition for an axiom, old wives' fables for moral certitude, and human impostures for divine revelation I take it to be very intelligible from the precedent section that what is evidently repugnant to clear and distinct ideas,[20] or to our common notions,[21] is contrary to reason.

No Christian that I know of expressly says reason and the Gospel are contrary to one another. But very many affirm that And that though we cannot reconcile them by reason of our corrupt and limited understandings, yet that from the authority of divine revelation we are bound to believe and acquiesce in them; or, as the fathers taught them to speak, to "adore what we cannot comprehend.

Without the pretense of it, we should never hear of transubstantiation, and other ridiculous fables of the Church of Rome. Nor should we be ever bantered with the Lutheran impanation The first thing I shall insist upon is that if any doctrine of the New Testament be contrary to reason, we have no manner of idea of it.

To say, for instance, that a ball is white and black at once is to say just nothing, for these colors are so incompatible in the same subject as to exclude all possibility of a real positive idea or conception.

Many doctrines say these are made necessary to salvation, which 'tis impossible to believe, because they are in their nature absurdities.

I replied, that these things were mysteries, and so above our understanding. But he asked me to what end could an unintelligible doctrine be revealed?

What can be the effect of an unintelligible mystery upon our minds, but only an amusement? That which is only above reason must be above a rational belief, and must I be saved by an irrational belief?

You all agree that the belief of your Trinity is absolutely necessary to salvation, and yet widely differ in what we must believe concerning it; whether three Minds or Modes, or Properties, or internal Relations, or economies, or Manifestations, or external Denominations; or else no more than a Holy Three, or Three Somewhats If I should be persuaded that an explanation of the Trinity were necessary to save my soul, and see the Learned so widely differing and hotly disputing what it is I must believe concerning it, I should certainly run mad through despair of finding out the Truth Arguments for the existence of God Thomas Hobbes — a 17th century deist and important influence on subsequent deists — used the cosmological argument for the existence of God at several places in his writings.

The effects we acknowledge naturally, do include a power of their producing, before they were produced; and that power presupposeth something existent that hath such power; and the thing so existing with power to produce, if it were not eternal, must needs have been produced by somewhat before it, and that again by something else before that, till we come to an eternal, that is to say, the first power of all powers and first cause of all causes; and this is it which all men conceive by the name of God, implying eternity, incomprehensibility, and omnipotence.

History of religion and the deist mission Most deists saw the religions of their day as corruptions of an original, pure religion that was simple and rational.

They felt that this original pure religion had become corrupted by "priests" who had manipulated it for personal gain and for the class interests of the priesthood in general.

Laymen were told by the priests that only the priests really knew what was necessary for salvation and that laymen must accept the "mysteries" on faith and on the priests' authority.

This kept the laity baffled by the nonsensical "mysteries", confused, and dependent on the priests for information about the requirements for salvation.

The priests consequently enjoyed a position of considerable power over the laity, which they strove to maintain and increase. Deists referred to this kind of manipulation of religious doctrine as "priestcraft", a highly derogatory term.

In many cases, they considered true, original Christianity to be the same as this original natural religion. As Matthew Tindal put it: It can't be imputed to any defect in the light of nature that the pagan world ran into idolatry, but to their being entirely governed by priests, who pretended communication with their gods, and to have thence their revelations, which they imposed on the credulous as divine oracles.

This became a point of attack for thinkers such as David Hume as they studied the "natural history of religion". Freedom and necessity Enlightenment thinkers, under the influence of Newtonian science, tended to view the universe as a vast machine, created and set in motion by a creator being, that continues to operate according to natural law, without any divine intervention.

This view naturally led to what was then usually called necessitarianism [23] the modern term is determinism : the view that everything in the universe — including human behavior — is completely causally determined by antecedent circumstances and natural law.

See, for example, La Mettrie's L'Homme machine [24]. As a consequence, debates about freedom versus "necessity" were a regular feature of Enlightenment religious and philosophical discussions.

Because of their high regard for natural law and for the idea of a universe without miracles, deists were especially susceptible to the temptations of determinism.

Reflecting the intellectual climate of the time, there were differences among deists about freedom and determinism.

Some, such as Anthony Collins, actually were necessitarians. Beliefs about immortality of the soul Deists hold a variety of beliefs about the soul.

Some, such as Lord Herbert of Cherbury and William Wollaston,[26] held that souls exist, survive death, and in the afterlife are rewarded or punished by God for their behavior in life.

Some, such as Benjamin Franklin, believed in reincarnation or resurrection. Others such as Thomas Paine were agnostic about the immortality of the soul: I trouble not myself about the manner of future existence.

I content myself with believing, even to positive conviction, that the power that gave me existence is able to continue it, in any form and manner he pleases, either with or without this body; and it appears more probable to me that I shall continue to exist hereafter than that I should have had existence, as I now have, before that existence began.

Historical background Deistic thinking has existed since ancient times. Among the Ancient Greeks, Heraclitus conceived of a logos, a supreme rational principle, and said the wisdom "by which all things are steered through all things" was "both willing and unwilling to be called Zeus God ".

Plato envisaged God as a Demiurge or 'craftsman'. Outside ancient Greece many other cultures have expressed views that resemble deism in some respects.

However, the word "deism", as it is understood today, is generally used to refer to the movement toward natural theology or freethinking that occurred in 17th-century Europe, and specifically in Britain.

Natural theology is a facet of the revolution in world view that occurred in Europe in the 17th century. To understand the background to that revolution is also to understand the background of deism.

Several cultural movements of the time contributed to the movement. The discovery of diversity The humanist tradition of the Renaissance included a revival of interest in Europe's classical past in Greece and Rome.

The veneration of that classical past, particularly pre-Christian Rome, the new availability of Greek philosophical works, the successes of humanism and natural science along with the fragmentation of the Christian churches and increased understanding of other faiths, all helped erode the image of the church as the unique source of wisdom, destined to dominate the whole world.

In addition, study of classical documents led to the realization that some historical documents are less reliable than others, which led to the beginnings of biblical criticism.

In particular, when scholars worked on biblical manuscripts, they began developing the principles of textual criticism and a view of the New Testament being the product of a particular historical period different from their own.

In addition to discovering diversity in the past, Europeans discovered diversity in the present. The voyages of discovery of the 16th and 17th centuries acquainted Europeans with new and different cultures in the Americas, in Asia, and in the Pacific.

They discovered a greater amount of cultural diversity than they had ever imagined, and the question arose of how this vast amount of human cultural diversity could be compatible with the biblical account of Noah's descendants.

In particular, the ideas of Confucius, translated into European languages by the Jesuits stationed in China, are thought to have had considerable influence on the deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system "Life and works of Confucius", by Prospero Intorcetta, In particular, cultural diversity with respect to religious beliefs could no longer be ignored.

As Herbert wrote in De Religione Laici , Many faiths or religions, clearly, exist or once existed in various countries and ages, and certainly there is not one of them that the lawgivers have not pronounced to be as it were divinely ordained, so that the Wayfarer finds one in Europe, another in Africa, and in Asia, still another in the very Indies.

This new awareness of diversity led to a feeling that Christianity was just one religion among many, with no better claim than any other to correctness.

Religious conflict Europe had been plagued by vicious sectarian conflicts and religious wars since the beginning of the Reformation. In , when Lord Herbert of Cherbury's De Veritate was published, the Thirty Years War had been raging on continental Europe for nearly 25 years.

At the same time, the English Civil War pitting King against Parliament was just beginning. Such massive sectarian violence inspired a visceral rejection of the sectarianism that had led to the violence.

Advances in scientific knowledge The 17th century saw a remarkable advance in scientific knowledge: the scientific revolution.

The work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo set aside the old notion that the earth was the center of the universe.

These discoveries posed a serious challenge to biblical authority and to the religious authorities, Galileo's condemnation for heresy being an especially visible example.

In consequence the Bible came to be seen as authoritative on matters of faith and morals but no longer authoritative or meant to be on matters of science.

Isaac Newton's mathematical explanation of universal gravitation explained the behavior both of objects here on earth and of objects in the heavens in a way that promoted a world view in which the natural universe is controlled by laws of nature.

This, in turn, suggested a theology in which God created the universe, set it in motion controlled by natural law and retired from the scene.

See the Watchmaker analogy. The new awareness of the explanatory power of universal natural law also produced a growing skepticism about such religious staples as miracles that is, violations of natural law and about books, such as the Bible, that reported them.

Early deism For main article, see English and French Deism in the Eighteenth Century Lord Herbert of Cherbury d. Like his contemporary Descartes, Herbert searched for the foundations of knowledge.

In fact, the first two thirds of De Veritate are devoted to an exposition of Herbert's theory of knowledge. Herbert distinguished truths obtained through experience, and through reasoning about experience, from innate truths and from revealed truths.

Innate truths are imprinted on our minds, Edward Herbert, portrait by Isaac Oliver — and the evidence that they are so imprinted is that they are universally accepted.

In the realm of religion, Herbert believed that there were five common notions. A sense of the importance that Herbert attributed to innate Common Notions will help in understanding how devastating Locke's attack on innate ideas was for Herbert's philosophy No general agreement exists concerning the Gods, but there is universal recognition of God.

Every religion in the past has acknowledged, every religion in the future will acknowledge, some sovereign deity among the Gods.

Accordingly that which is everywhere accepted as the supreme manifestation of deity, by whatever name it may be called, I term God. While there is no general agreement concerning the worship of Gods, sacred beings, saints, and angels, yet the Common Notion or Universal Consent tells us that adoration ought to be reserved for the one God.

Hence divine religion— and no race, however savage, has existed without some expression of it— is found established among all nations.

The connection of Virtue with Piety, defined in this work as the right conformation of the faculties, is and always has been held to be, the most important part of religious practice.

There is no general agreement concerning rites, ceremonies, traditions Moral virtue There is no general agreement concerning the various rites or mysteries which the priests have devised for the expiation of sin General agreement among religions, the nature of divine goodness, and above all conscience, tell us that our crimes may be washed away by true penitence, and that we can be restored to new union with God.

I do not wish to consider here whether any other more appropriate means exists by which the divine justice may be appeased, since I have undertaken in this work only to rely on truths which are not open to dispute but are derived from the evidence of immediate perception and admitted by the whole world.

The rewards that are eternal have been variously placed in heaven, in the stars, in the Elysian fields Punishment has been thought to lie in metempsychosis, in hell, But all religion, law, philosophy, and That reward and punishment exist is, then, a Common Notion, though there is the greatest difference of opinion as to their nature, quality, extent, and mode.

It follows from these considerations that the dogmas which recognize a sovereign Deity, enjoin us to worship Him, command us to live a holy life, lead us to repent our sins, and warn us of future recompense or punishment, proceed from God and are inscribed within us in the form of Common Notions.

Revealed truth exists; and it would be unjust to ignore it. But its nature is quite distinct from the truth [based on Common Notions] We must, then, proceed with great care in discerning what actually is revealed Blount made one special contribution to the deist debate: "by utilizing his wide classical learning, Blount demonstrated how to use pagan writers, and pagan ideas, against Christianity.

Other Deists were to follow his lead. John Locke The publication of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding , but dated marks a major turning point in the history of deism.

Statesman, scientist, political philosopher, author. As a philosopher known for his writings on nationality, economic matters, aphorisms published in Poor Richard's Almanac and polemics in favor of American Independence.

Involved with writing the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of Historian best known for his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Economist, political theorist and politician. A major protagonist for the Constitution of the United States, and the single greatest contributor to the Federalist Papers, advocating for the constitution's ratification through detailed examinations of its construction, philosophical and moral basis, and intent.

Theologian and linguist. Proposed that language determines thought, introduced concepts of ethnic study and nationalism, influential on later Romantic thinkers.

Early supporter of democracy and republican self rule. While Hobbes justifies absolute monarchy, this work is the first to posit that the temporal power of a monarch comes about, not because God has ordained that he be monarch, but because his subjects have freely yielded their own power and freedom to him - in other words, Hobbes replaces the divine right of kings with an early formulation of the social contract.

Hobbes' work was condemned by reformers for its defense of absolutism, and by traditionalists for its claim that the power of government derives from the power of its subjects rather than the will of God.

Author, encyclopaedist and Europe's first outspoken atheist. Roused much controversy over his criticism of religion as a whole in his work The System of Nature.

Performed the work which quantified such concepts as Boyle's Law and the inverse-square nature of gravitation, father of the science of microscopy.

Historian, philosopher and economist. Best known for his empiricism and rational skepticism, advanced doctrines of naturalism and material causes.

Influenced Kant and Adam Smith. Philosopher and physicist. Established critical philosophy on a systematic basis, proposed a material theory for the origin of the solar system, wrote on ethics and morals.

Prescribed a politics of Enlightenment in What is Enlightenment? Influenced by Hume and Isaac Newton.

Important figure in German Idealism, and important to the work of Fichte and Hegel. Statesman, political philosopher, educator. As a philosopher best known for the United States Declaration of Independence , especially "All men are created equal," and his support of democracy in theory and practice.

A polymath, he promoted higher education as a way to uplift the entire nation. Preeminent statesman. Government Constitution to assist in the document's implementation.

Leading poet of the Polish Enlightenment. Dramatist, critic, political philosopher. Important empiricist who expanded and extended the work of Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes.

Seminal thinker in the realm of the relationship between the state and the individual, the contractual basis of the state and the rule of law.

Argued for personal liberty emphasizing the rights of property. Polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.

Statesman and political philosopher. Played a key role in the writing of the United States Constitution and providing a theoretical justification for it in his contributions to the Federalist Papers; author of the American Bill of Rights.

Philosopher of Jewish Enlightenment in Prussia Haskalah , honoured by his friend Lessing in his drama as Nathan the Wise. Philosopher, jurist, pre-evolutionary thinker and contributor to linguistic evolution.

He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions all over the world.

Political scientist, Donald Lutz, found that Montesquieu was the most frequently quoted authority on government in colonial America. Dramatist and translator, support of republicanism and free thinking.

Transitional figure to Romanticism. A leading composer of the era. Philanthropist and journalist who sought to raise the culture of Russian readers and publicly argued with the Empress.

See Russian Enlightenment. Polymath-poet, writer, historian, translator, engraver, editor, publisher, etc. Writer, linguist and influential proponent of Serbian cultural nationalism.

He also implemented sweeping economic policies to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country. Writer and philosopher.

He brought the tradition of radicalism in Russian literature to prominence. Philosopher who developed Common Sense Realism. He wrote The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued that wealth was not money in itself, but wealth was derived from the added value in manufactured items produced by both invested capital and labour.

He is sometimes considered to be the founding father of the laissez-faire economic theory, but in fact argues for some degree of government control in order to maintain equity.

Just prior to this he wrote Theory of Moral Sentiments, explaining how it is humans function and interact through what he calls sympathy, setting up important context for The Wealth of Nations.

Highly influential writer, historian and philosopher. He promoted Newtonian ism and denounced organized religion as pernicious.

References [1] Robert R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution [2] Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Edn revised [3] This section is taken largely from Roy Porter's book entitled The Enlightenment [4] Russell, Bertrand.

A History of Western Philosophy. The argument is expanded in Daniel Brewer, The Enlightenment Past: Reconstructing Eighteenth-Century French Thought Cambridge U.

Press, [6] Jonathan I. Israel, Enlightenment Contested, Oxford, , pp. Israel, Radical Enlightenment, Oxford, , p. Israel, , p.

Israel, A revolution of the mind, Princeton University Press, , p. Retrieved Livingstone and Charles W. Withers, Geography and Enlightenment [18] Stephen J.

Lee, Aspects of European history, — pp. Richter, ed. The Literature of Weimar Classicism [24] Samantha Owens et al.

Music at German Courts, — Changing Artistic Priorities [25] Manfred Kuehn, Kant: A Biography The Society of the Enlightenment: The Rise of the Middle Class and Enlightenment Culture in Germany [27] David Daiches, Peter Jones and Jean Jones, A Hotbed of Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment, — [28] Bruce P.

The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. Landry, Marx and the postmodernism debates: an agenda for critical theory p. D'Andrea, Tradition, rationality, and virtue: the thought of Alasdair MacIntyre p.

Habermas, 14— Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music, Seventh Edition, New York: W.

Histoire, Sciences sociales, vol. This same desire for multiple witnesses led to attempts at replication in other locations and a complex iconography and literary technology developed to provide visual and written proof of experimentation.

See pages 59— See Rolf Engelsing, "Die Perioden der Lesergeschichte in der Neuzeit. Das statische Ausmass und die soziokulturelle Bedeutung der Lektüre", Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens, 10 , cols.

Martin's, , For a more detailed description of French censorship laws, see Darnton, The Literary Underground [72] Outram, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , , Kant, "What is Enlightenment?

As a result, the conclusions that he draws generally cannot, without further research, be applied to other cultural contexts.

Andrew, "Popular Culture and Public Debate: London ", This Historical Journal, Vol. June , pp. Andrew gives the name as "William Henley", which must be a lapse of writing.

Bullock, "Initiating the Enlightenment? Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The struggle p. York, "Freemasons and the American Revolution", The Historian Volume: Issue: 2.

ISBN See also Janet M. Burke, "Freemasonry, Friendship and Noblewomen: The Role of the Secret Society in Bringing Enlightenment Thought to Pre-Revolutionary Women Elites", History of European Ideas 10 no.

Jacob's seminal work on Enlightenment freemasonry, Margaret C. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment: Free masonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, The past tense is used deliberately as whether man would educate himself or be educated by certain exemplary figures was a common issue at the time.

See also, A. Owen Alridge ed. The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers. Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism , 2nd ed.

The Enlightenment World. Enlightenment: A Comparative Social History, — England. The Enlightenment 2nd ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Enlightenment.

Owen ed. The Ibero-American Enlightenment The Historical Journal, Vol. June , pp — The Enlightenment Past: reconstructing 18th-century French thought.

The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Translated by Lydia G.

Duke University Press, New Haven: Yale University Press, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime.

The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, Science and the Enlightenment Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, — A Revolution of the Mind - Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy.

The Enlightenment in America. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. The Creation of the Modern World: The Untold Story of the British Enlightenment.

Philadelphia's Enlightenment, — Kingdom of Christ, Empire of Reason. France in the Enlightenment.

Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue, and Beauty in Mozart's Operas.

Utopia and Reform in the Enlightenment. George Macaulay Trevelyan Lecture, Rameau's Nephew and First Satire. Science in the Age of Enlightenment The scientific history of the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the Age of Reason, when Enlightenment ideas and ideals were being disseminated across Europe and North America.

Generally, the period spans from the final days of the 16th and 17th-century Scientific revolution until roughly the 19th century, after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era — By the 18th century, scientific authority began to displace religious authority, and the disciplines of alchemy and Table of astronomy, from the Cyclopaedia astrology lost scientific credibility.

While the Enlightenment cannot be pigeonholed into a specific doctrine or set of dogmas, science came to play a leading role in Enlightenment discourse and thought.

Many Enlightenment writers and thinkers had backgrounds in the sciences and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favour of the development of free speech and thought.

Broadly speaking, Enlightenment science greatly valued empiricism and rational thought, and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress.

As with most Enlightenment views, the benefits of science were not seen universally; Jean-Jacques Rousseau criticized the sciences for distancing man from nature and not operating to make people happier.

Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development.

Societies and academies were also the backbone of the maturation of the scientific profession. Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population.

Universities The number of universities in Europe remained relatively constant throughout the 18th century. Europe had about universities and colleges by North America had 44, including the newly founded Harvard and Yale.

The universities themselves existed primarily to educate future physicians, lawyers and The original building at Yale, — members of the clergy.

The study of science under the heading of natural philosophy was divided into physics and a conglomerate grouping of chemistry and natural history, which included anatomy, biology, geology, mineralogy, and zoology.

A notable exception were universities in Spain, which under the influence of Catholicism focused almost entirely on Aristotelian natural philosophy until the midth century; they were among the last universities to do so.

Another exception occurred in the universities of Germany and Scandinavia, where University of Halle professor Christian Wolff taught a form of Cartesianism modified by Leibnizian physics.

Before the 18th century, science courses were taught almost exclusively through formal lectures. The structure of courses began to change in the first decades of the 18th century, when physical demonstrations were added to lectures.

Experiments ranged from swinging a bucket of water at the end of a rope, demonstrating that centrifugal force would hold the water in the bucket, to more impressive experiments involving the use of an air-pump.

Some attempts at reforming the structure of the science curriculum were made during the 18th-century and the first decades of the 19th century.

Beginning around , the Hats party in Sweden made propositions to reform the university system by separating natural philosophy into two separate faculties of physics and mathematics.

However, the reform did not survive beyond and the Third Partition. The state of Belgium-Holland employed the same system in However, the other countries of Europe did not adopt a similar division of the faculties until the midth century.

Universities in France tended to serve a downplayed role in the development of science during the Enlightenment; that role was dominated by the scientific academies, such as the French Academy of Sciences.

The contributions of universities in Britain were mixed. On the one hand, the University of Cambridge began teaching Newtonianism early in the Enlightenment, but failed to become a central force behind the advancement of science.

On the other end of the spectrum were Scottish universities, which had strong medical faculties and became centres of scientific development. Christian Wolff's unique The old entrance to the University of Göttingen.

The University of Göttingen, founded in , was far more liberal than its counterparts, allowing professors to plan their own courses and select their own textbooks.

Göttingen also emphasized research and publication. Most of the new institutions emphasized mathematics as a discipline, making them popular with professions that required some working knowledge of mathematics, such as merchants, military and naval officers, and engineers.

Societies and Academies Scientific academies and societies grew out of the Scientific Revolution as the creators of scientific knowledge in contrast to the scholasticism of the university.

After a tremendous number of official academies and societies were founded in Europe and by there were over seventy official scientific societies. At the turn of the century, the Academia Scientiarum Imperialis in St.

Petersburg, and the Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were created. Regional and provincial societies emerged out of the 18th century in Bologna, Bordeaux, Copenhagen, Dijon, Lyons, Montpellier and Uppsala.

Following this initial period of growth, societies were founded between and in Barcelona, Brussels, Dublin, Edinburgh, Göttingen, Mannheim, Munich, Padua and Turin.

The development of unchartered societies, such as the private the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Danzig and Lunar Society of Birmingham — , occurred alongside the growth of national, regional and provincial societies.

Official scientific societies were chartered by the state in order to provide technical expertise. State sponsorship was beneficial to the societies as it brought finance and recognition, along with a measure of freedom in management.

Most societies were granted permission to oversee their own publications, control the election of new members, and the administration of the society.

Kunstkammer in Saint Petersburg. In some societies, members were required to pay an annual fee to participate. For example, the Royal Society depended on contributions from its members, which excluded a wide range of artisans and mathematicians on account of the expense.

A dialogue of formal communication also developed between societies and society in general through the publication of scientific journals.

Periodicals offered society members the opportunity to publish, and for their ideas to be consumed by other scientific societies and the literate public.

Scientific journals, readily accessible to members of learned societies, became the most important form of publication for scientists during the Enlightenment.

Periodicals Academies and societies served to disseminate Enlightenment science by publishing the scientific works of their members, as well as their proceedings.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, published by the Royal Society of London, was the only scientific periodical being published on a regular, quarterly basis.

The Paris Academy of Sciences, formed in , began publishing in volumes of memoirs rather than a quarterly journal, with periods between volumes sometimes lasting years.

Smaller periodicals, such as Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, were only published when enough content was available to complete a volume.

At one point the period extended to seven years. The limitations of such academic journals left considerable space for the rise of independent periodicals.

Independent periodicals were published throughout the Enlightenment and excited scientific interest in the general public.

First, they increased in number and size. There was also a move away from publishing in Latin in favour of publishing in the vernacular.

Experimental descriptions became more detailed and began to be accompanied by reviews. The journal allowed new scientific developments to be published relatively quickly compared to annuals and quarterlies.

A third important change was the specialization seen in the new development of disciplinary journals. Encyclopedias and dictionaries Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, and would be nothing new to Enlightenment readers, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries.

Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology. Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines.

Revolution — Published in , the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation.

The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy, and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving, brewing, and dyeing.

In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education.

Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon, and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory.

For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine, while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively.

However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries.

It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries.

A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail. As a Reasoned Dictionary.

Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge. Popularization of science One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization.

An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning.

The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education.

British coffeehouses An early example of science emanating from the official institutions into the public realm was the British coffeehouse.

With the establishment of coffeehouses, a new public forum for political, philosophical and scientific discourse was created.

In the midth century, coffeehouses cropped up around Oxford, where the academic community began to capitalize on the unregulated conversation that the coffeehouse allowed.

Education was a central theme and some patrons began offering lessons and lectures to others. As coffeehouses developed in London, customers heard lectures on scientific subjects, such as astronomy and mathematics, for an exceedingly low price.

Public lectures Public lecture courses offered some scientists who were unaffiliated with official organizations a forum to transmit scientific knowledge, at times even their own ideas, and the opportunity to carve out a reputation and, in some instances, a living.

The public, on the other hand, gained both knowledge and entertainment from demonstration lectures. Class sizes ranged from one hundred to four or five hundred attendees.

Courses were offered at virtually any time of day; the latest occurred at or at night. One of the most popular start times was pm, allowing the working population to participate and signifying the attendance of the nonelite.

Generally, individuals presenting the lectures did not adhere to any particular brand of physics, but rather demonstrated a combination of different theories.

In the demonstration, a young boy would be suspended from the ceiling, horizontal to the floor, with silk chords. An electrical machine would then be used to electrify the boy.

Essentially becoming a magnet, he would then attract a collection of items scattered about him by the lecturer. Popular science in print Increasing literacy rates in Europe during the course of the Enlightenment enabled science to enter popular culture through print.

More formal works included explanations of scientific theories for individuals lacking the educational background to comprehend the original scientific text.

The publication of Bernard de Fontenelle's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds marked the first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular, and with the entertainment of readers in mind.

The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works. A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pembarton.

Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class.

Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children entitled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions.

The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. Some poetry became infused with scientific metaphor and imagery, while other poems were written directly about scientific topics.

Sir Richard Blackmore committed the Newtonian system to verse in Creation, a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books Other antiscience writers, including William Blake, chastised scientists for attempting to use physics, mechanics and mathematics to simplify the complexities of the universe, particularly in relation to God.

The character of the evil scientist was invoked during this period in the romantic tradition. For example, the characterization of the scientist as a nefarious manipulator in the work of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann.

Women in science During the Enlightenment era, women were excluded from scientific societies, universities and learned professions.

Women were educated, if at all, through self-study, tutors, and by the teachings of more open-minded fathers. In fact, restrictions were so severe in the 18th century that women, including midwives, were forbidden to use forceps.

Over the course of the 18th century, male surgeons began to assume the role of midwives in gynaecology. Some male satirists also ridiculed scientifically minded women, describing them as A portrait of Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky.

To be pleasing in his sight, to win his respect and love, to train him in childhood, to tend him in manhood, to counsel and console, to make his life pleasant and happy, these are the duties of woman for all time, and this is what she should be taught while she is young.

Despite these limitations, there was support for women in the sciences among some men, and many made valuable contributions to science during the 18th century.

Two notable women who managed to participate in formal institutions were Laura Bassi and the Russian Princess Yekaterina Dashkova.

Bassi was an Italian physicist who received a PhD from the University of Bologna and began teaching there in Dashkova became the director of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences of St.

Petersburg in Her personal relationship with Czarina Catherine the Great r. More commonly, women participated in the sciences through an association with a male relative or spouse.

Caroline Herschel began her astronomical career, although somewhat reluctantly at first, by assisting her brother William Herschel.

Caroline Herschel is most Portrait of M. On August 1, , Herschel discovered her first comet, much to the excitement of scientifically minded women.

Eva Ekeblad became the first woman inducted in to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science Many other women became illustrators or translators of scientific texts.

Englishwoman Mary Delany developed a unique method of illustration. Her technique involved using hundreds of pieces of coloured-paper to recreate lifelike renditions of living plants.

Noblewomen sometimes cultivated their own botanical gardens, including Mary Somerset and Margaret Harley.

Scientific translation sometimes required more than a grasp on multiple languages. Astronomy Building on the body of work forwarded by Copernicus, Kepler and Newton, 18th-century astronomers refined telescopes, produced star catalogues, and worked towards explaining the motions of heavenly bodies and the consequences of universal gravitation.

When he compared the ancient positions of stars to their contemporary positions, he found that they had shifted. The discovery was proof of a heliocentric model of the universe, since it is the revolution of the earth around the sun that causes an apparent motion in the observed position of a star.

The discovery also led Bradley to a fairly close estimate to the speed of light. During the transit of Venus, the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov observed a ring of light around the planet.

Lomonosov attributed the ring to the refraction of sunlight, which he correctly hypothesized was caused by the atmosphere of Venus.

Further evidence of Venus' atmosphere was gathered in observations by Johann Hieronymus Schröter in However, much astronomical work of the period becomes shadowed by one of the most dramatic scientific discoveries of the 18th-century.

On 13 March , amateur astronomer William William Herschel's 40 foot 12 m telescope. Herschel spotted a new planet with his powerful reflecting telescope.

Initially identified as a comet, the celestial body later came to be accepted as a planet. The name Uranus, as proposed by Johann Bode, came into widespread usage after Herschel's death.

Michell postulated that if the density of a stellar object became great enough, its attractive force would become so large that even light could not escape.

While differing somewhat from a black hole, the dark star can be understood as a predecessor to the black holes resulting from Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Chemistry The chemical revolution was a period in the 18th century marked by significant advancements in the theory and practice of chemistry.

Despite the maturity of most of the sciences during the scientific revolution, by the midth century chemistry had yet to outline a systematic framework or theoretical doctrine.

Elements of alchemy still permeated the study of chemistry, and the belief that the natural world was composed of the classical elements of earth, water, air and fire remained prevalent.

The resulting product was termed calx, which was considered a 'dephlogisticated' substance in its 'true' form. Science in the Age of Enlightenment Lavoisier subsequently discovered and named oxygen, described its role in animal respiration[89] and the calcination of metals exposed to air — In , Lavoisier found that water was a compound of oxygen and hydrogen.

For example, burned lead was of the genus oxide and species lead. The new chemistry was established in Glasgow and Edinburgh early in the s, but was slow to become established in Germany.

Notes [1] Burns , entry: 7, Margaret Jacob offers a more specific analysis of lecturers in Holland and England in The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution New York: Knopf, Butterfield, "Chapter 11" of The Origins of Modern Science: New York: Macmillan, for this traditional view.

References Burns, William E. Science in the Enlightenment. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Butterfield, H.

The Origins of Modern Science: New York: Macmillan. Butts, Freeman R. New York: McGraw-Hill. Conant, James Bryant, ed. The Overthrow of the Phlogiston Theory: The Chemical Revolution of Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cowen, Brian William. The Social Life of Coffee: The Emergence of the British Coffeehouse. New Haven: Yale University Press. Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot.

Richard N. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Darnton, Robert. Daston, Lorraine. The Academies and the Utility of Knowledge: The Discipline of the Disciplines.

Differences vol. Gillispie, Charles C. Science and Polity in France at the end of the Old Regime. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Headrick, Daniel R. When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hoskin, Michael, ed. The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Idhe, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry.

Jacob, Margaret C. The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Kors, Alan Charles, ed.

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. Littmann, Mark. Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System. New York: Courier Dover Publications.

Lynn, Michael R. Popular science and public opinion in eighteenth-century France. Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press; New York : Palgrave.

Mason, Stephen F. A History of the Sciences. New York: Collier Books. McClellan, James E. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. McClellan, James Edward and Harold Dorn Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction.

JHU Press. Melton, James van Horn. Olby, R. N Cantor, J. Christie, and M. Companion to the History of Modern Science. London: Routledge. Parker, Barry.

Cosmic Time Travel: A Scientific Odyssey. New York: Plenum Press. Perrin, C. Research Traditions, Lavoisier, and the Chemical Revolution.

Osiris, 2nd Series vol. Phillips, Patricia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Porter, Roy, ed. The Cambridge History of Science.

Schectman, Jonathan. Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions and Discoveries of the 18th Century. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Shearer, Barbara S. Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary. Silver, Brian L. The Ascent of Science.

New York: Oxford University Press. Sutton, Geoffrey. Science for a Polite Society: Gender, Culture, and the Demonstration of Enlightenment.

Colorado: Westview Press. Thomson, James. The seasons. To which is added, A poem sacred to the memory of Sir Isaac Newton, By James Thomson.

Berwick: printed for W. Turner, Herbert Hall. Astronomical Discovery. Berkeley: University of California Press. Whitehead, Barbara J. New York: Garland.

American Enlightenment The American Enlightenment is the intellectual thriving period in America in the mid-to-late 18th century, especially as it relates to American Revolution on the one hand and the European Enlightenment on the other.

Influenced by the scientific revolution of the 17th century and the humanist period during the Renaissance, the Enlightenment took scientific reasoning and applied it to human nature, society and religion.

Politically the age is distinguished by an emphasis upon liberty, democracy, republicanism and religious tolerance — culminating in the drafting of the United States Declaration of Independence and Constitution.

Attempts to reconcile science and religion resulted in a rejection of prophecy, miracle and revealed religion, often in preference for Deism.

Historians have considered how the ideas of John Locke and Republicanism merged together to form Republicanism in the United States. The most important leaders of the American Enlightenment include Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.

Sources The Americans closely followed English and Scottish political ideas, as well as some French thinkers such as Montesquieu.

John Locke was especially influential. From the Country Party the Americans picked up republicanism, which became a major component of American political values.

Liberalism and Republicanism: Government of the People, by the People, for the People Since the s historians have debated the Enlightenment's role in the American Revolution.

Before the consensus was that liberalism, especially that of John Locke, was paramount and that republicanism had a distinctly secondary role.

Pocock who argued in The Machiavellian Moment that, at least in the early eighteenth-century, republican ideas were just as important as liberal ones.

Pocock's view is now widely accepted. University Professor Isaac Kramnick, on the other hand, argues that Americans have always been highly individualistic and therefore Lockean.

They especially followed the development of republican ideas in England. A neoclassical politics provided both the ethos of the elites and the rhetoric of the upwardly mobile, and accounts for the singular cultural and intellectual homogeneity of the Founding Fathers and their generation.

Ideas spread most rapidly when they have found adequate concrete expression. Up to this point, the conviction had prevailed in Europe that monarchy best served the interests of the nation.

Now the idea spread that the nation should govern itself. But only after a state had actually been formed on the basis of the theory of representation did the full significance of this idea become clear.

All later revolutionary movements have this same goal This was the complete reversal of a principle. Until then, a king who ruled by the grace of God had been the center around which everything turned.

Now the idea emerged that power should come from below These two principles are like two opposite poles, and it is the conflict between them that determines the course of the modern world.

In Europe the conflict between them had not yet taken on concrete form; with the French Revolution it did. Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness Many historians[10] find the origins of the famous phrase derives from Locke's position that "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.

American Enlightenment The United States Declaration of Independence, which was primarily written by Jefferson, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, The text of the second section of the Declaration of Independence reads: We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

Deism Both the Moderate Enlightenment and a Radical or Revolutionary Enlightenment were reactions against the authoritarianism, irrationality and obscurantism of the established churches.

Philosophes such as Voltaire depicted organized Christianity as a tool of tyrants and oppressors and as being used to defend monarchism, it was seen as hostile to the development of reason and the progress of science and incapable of verification.

An alternative religion was Deism, the philosophical belief in a deity based on reason, rather than religious revelation or dogma.

It was a popular perception among the philosophes, who adopted deistic attitudes to varying degrees.

Deism greatly influenced the thought of intellectuals and Founding Fathers, including John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, [and George Washington and, especially, Thomas Jefferson.

Paine was highly controversial; when Jefferson was attacked for his Deism in the Thomas Paine election, Republican politicians took pains to distance their candidate from him.

Religious Tolerance Enlightened Founding Fathers, especially Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington, fought for and eventually attained religious freedom for minority denominations.

According to the founding fathers, America should be a country where peoples of all faiths, including Catholics, could live in peace and mutual benefit.

James Madison summed up this ideal in saying, "Conscience is the most sacred of all property. References [1] Paul M. Spurlin, Montesquieu in America, [2] Jerome Huyler, Locke in America: The moral philosophy of the founding era [3] See for example, Vernon L.

Greene and J. Pole, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution ch 9; Robert E. Shallhope, "Republicanism," ibid ch The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution [9] quoted in Becker , p.

Pole, The pursuit of equality in American history p. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved January 21,

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Sexy legs im metro 7 Sexy Beine in der U-Bahn 7. Rhaya Shyne was especially true on the Continent: when the first lodges began to appear in the s, their embodiment of British values was often seen as threatening by state authorities. Boyle's method based knowledge on experimentation, which had to be witnessed to provide proper empirical legitimacy. Moka Mora Analpp — Best known for his empiricism and rational skepticism, advanced doctrines of naturalism and material causes. One leader of the Scottish Enlightenment was Russia Adam Smith, the father of modern economic science In Porno Delux Enlightenment of the mid-eighteenth century saw the government begin to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences. This was the complete Extreme Anal Dildo Porn of a principle. At the same time, the English Civil War pitting King against Parliament was just Pornos Kostenlosen. Of a total of 2 prize Japanse Porno offered in France, women won 49 — perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training. Recently, musicologists have shown renewed interest in the ideas and consequences of the Enlightenment. Scientific and literary journals The many scientific and literary journals predominantly composed of book reviews that were published during this time are also evidence of the intellectual side of the Enlightenment. He is sometimes considered to be the founding father inauthor:michael schäfer the laissez-faire economic theory, but in fact argues for some degree of government control in order to maintain equity. Natural history in particular became increasingly popular among the upper classes. Beginning aroundthe Hats party in Sweden made propositions to reform the university system by separating Granny Porno Deutsch philosophy into two separate faculties of physics and mathematics.

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